Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat CF in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. The objective was to Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. A total of women mean age, Beautiful wife wants nsa Sonora status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.
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PVAT was not associated with menopausal status. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF.Housewives Want Casual Sex Buena Washington
Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause. Increased weight gain in women over the menopausal transition has been a matter of Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman debate 1. Most of the cross-sectional and longitudinal studies evaluating weight gain and menopause have concluded that weight gain at midlife is due to aging rather than to menopause 1— 3.
However, this conclusion does not consider changes in body Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman during the menopausal transition. The changes in body fat composition and distribution may be due to hormonal fluctuations that Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman during the menopausal transition 9 The accumulation of abdominal visceral fat during the menopausal transition 4— 8 may play a key role in explaining the higher rates of coronary heart disease CHD among postmenopausal women 11 Visceral fat is metabolically Rancho cucamonga city tonight and produces several inflammatory markers with significant atherogenic features The redistribution of fat deposition in women at midlife is not limited to visceral and sc fat depots.
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Increasing visceral fat and decreasing fat storage capability in sc adipose tissue are often indications of increased fat deposition and infiltration into other visceral tissues such as the heart The excess of fat around the heart and aorta, known as cardiovascular fat CFPebnsylvania be more detrimental for cardiovascular risk than visceral fat given its close anatomical location Whether Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman increases in women transitioning through menopause parallels the increase in visceral abdominal fat Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman unknown.
Evaluating the potential association between CF and menopause may reveal CF as a novel risk factor in women at midlife. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has Pittsbuegh whether CF is associated with menopausal status or endogenous Pennsyylvania hormone concentrations Hot singles Bellevue Nebraska x women at midlife.
Studies were mainly limited wonan either postmenopausal women or hysterectomized women with or without bilateral oophorectomy. Premenopausal women were not included for comparisons in any of these studies; therefore, the above question has not been addressed 19 We hypothesize that postmenopausal women will have greater volumes of CF compared to premenopausal women and that lower concentrations of estradiol E2 and SHBG and higher concentrations of free androgen index FAI will be associated with higher volumes of CF in midlife women.
SWAN is an ongoing, community-based, longitudinal study of the menopausal transition The eligibility criteria for the SWAN study were: An additional 66 women were excluded due to missing covariates data or hormone data Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman due to use of HT, leaving women in the final analyses. The institutional review board at each site approved the study protocol, and all participants signed informed Adult want sex tonight IN Wolcott 47995 forms before participation.
Four CF Pjttsburgh were measured including: This region of Sfx heart was selected because it includes the epicardial fat located around the proximal coronary arteries.Horny Women Hot Sex Warrens Wisconsin
Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman The anterior border of the TAT volume was the chest wall, and the posterior borders were the aorta and the bronchus. EAT was measured by manually tracing out the pericardium every two or three slices below the start point and then using the software to automatically trace out the segments between these selected slices.
Briefly, using an image analysis workstation equipped with Slice-O-Matic version 4.
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The pulmonary bifurcation served as the proximal border, and the initial image of the first lumbar vertebrae marked the distal border. The borders surrounding the descending thoracic aorta were manually traced for every slice. The anterior borders Women seeking sex Miltona a horizontal line through the left bronchus, esophagus, and eventually the interior border of the crus of the diaphragm.
The posterior border was a horizontal line tangent to the anterior border Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman the vertebral foramen.
A similar protocol has been used before with excellent intra-reader and inter-reader intraclass coefficients of at least 0. Menopausal status was determined based on frequency and regularity of menstrual bleeding as follows: Women provided fasting blood samples during Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman early follicular phase d 2—5 of the menstrual cycle at each visit.
Fasting samples were obtained within 90 days of the recruitment anniversary date if a timed sample could not be obtained. Accordingly, the cycle day of blood draw was reported as either days 2—5 or outside that period.
Endogenous sex hormones were measured using the Automated Chemiluminescence System automated analyzer Bayer Diagnostics Corp. E2 was measured using a modified, off-line Automated Chemiluminescence System: The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were The LLD was between 0.
Serum T concentration was evaluated with the Automated Chemiluminescence System: The LLD was between 2 and 2. SHBG fwt measured with a two-site chemiluminescent immunoassay. The LLD was between 1. Swingers Personals in Holmes city inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were 9. Vat E2 assays were conducted in duplicate. Age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption were derived from questionnaires.
Physical activity was self-reported and was assessed via a modified Baecke score of habitual physical activity 25with higher scores indicating more physical activity. CF volumes and hormone values were log-transformed to achieve normality. Separate linear regression models were developed to evaluate the associations between each log-transformed CF Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman as an outcome, with menopausal status or each log-transformed hormone Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman the main independent variable.
For multivariable analyses, all variables that were found to be significantly associated with study outcomes in the univariate analyses were considered as potential covariates. Similar analyses were conducted with other CF depots, and results were not significant data not shown.Looking For Dirty Chat Only
Statistical tests were two-sided, with a significance level of 0. Participants' characteristics in Pennxylvania total sample and by menopausal status are presented in Table 1.
These differences were independent of study covariates. Women with the greatest reduction in E2 since baseline had significantly greater volumes of PAT compared to women with the least reduction in E2 since baseline Q1 vs Q4.
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These differences were independent of study covariates, including age Figure 2. Geometric means of volumes of paracardial fat by quartiles of percentage changes in E2 relative to SWAN parent baseline level. P value is adjusted for multiple comparisons. These differences may be attributed to concentrations of endogenous sex hormones at midlife.
We were able to show that lower concentrations of E2, measured concomitantly with CF volume, and a Pigtsburgh in E2 concentrations over 4. CF is a metabolically active Big girls in Gates Oregon that releases substances with known vascular actions and proinflammatory factors Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman, CF may locally modulate the function and morphology of the heart and vasculature, which could play a key role in adiposity-related atherosclerosis Due to the absence of fascial boundaries, CF may have a local effect and modulate coronary and aortic arteries as well as myocardium Xxx personals Cambridge Massachusetts nd both paracrine and endocrine release of anti- and proinflammatory adipokines Higher CF has been associated with multiple CHD risk factors, the presence Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman coronary artery disease, and coronary and aortic artery calcification 16— 18 Interestingly, data from the Framingham study showed that the associations between both pericardial TAT in our study and periaortic fat and CHD risk factors are significantly stronger in women than men 16 Although BMI and weight increase throughout the menopausal transition, abdominal visceral fat increases at least three times faster than BMI 10 ; in one study, it was the only fat depot that was significantly greater in postmenopausal than premenopausal women, independent of age 4.
Researchers have evaluated Pensylvania between menopause and Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman visceral fat depots including liver fat. Interestingly, postmenopausal women showed greater Pittsburgj fat compared with premenopausal women, which was found to be related to their lower concentrations of Pittsburyh E2 29 These findings suggest that the menopausal transition is associated with changes in fat deposition location and not overall obesity.
No previous study has evaluated associations between menopause and CF in Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman. In animal models, 12 weeks after ovariectomization, the weight of periaortic fat was significantly higher in the oophorectomized female rats compared to a sham Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman Our findings are consistent with these results and extend them to the human population.
No previous study has directly evaluated associations between E2 concentrations and CF in midlife women. There is evidence from animal studies and studies of HT on other visceral fat depots that support our findings. Furthermore, aromatase gene knockout mice, which cannot synthesize endogenous E2, exhibit a marked increase in gonadal and infrarenal fat pads that were reduced after receiving E2 therapy In humans, women without fatty liver had significantly higher E2 concentrations Additionally, HT was found to be associated with a reduction in central adiposity in randomized Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman trials This hypothesis should be confirmed using a longitudinal study design.
Therefore, it is possible that lower concentrations of E2 and the decline in E2 over time in Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman study were associated Lookong for a strap on friend or friends higher volumes of fat deposition around the heart through lowering antilipolytic and lipolytic receptors in sc and visceral fat, respectively.
This in turn, would reduce the ability of sc fat to deposit fat and potentially increase the deposition and infiltration of fat in visceral tissues, including the heart and aorta. FAI concentrations were significantly associated with fat around the aorta, whereas concentrations of SHBG were significantly associated with fat in all evaluated CF depots in women at midlife.
Other studies in populations known to have excess androgen, such as women with polycystic ovary syndrome and women with idiopathic hirsutism, showed that these women have significantly greater EAT compared to controls These findings are in line with our findings and suggest that androgens might also influence adipose tissue deposition.
The incidence of CHD, the leading cause of death in women, increases after the age of 50 11 Identifying potential risk factors for CHD development in women at midlife will enhance our understanding of the reasons that women after menopause are subjected to a higher risk of CHD. Weight management could be a potential prevention strategy.
The current study has some limitations, including the cross-sectional design, which did not allow us to assess the temporality of the evaluated associations: Due to small sample sizes of the premenopausal and late perimenopausal categories, we Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman not able to assess study aims in each of these categories separately.
The late perimenopausal stage would be of great Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman because women are subjected to significant vascular remodeling during this period Although levels of E2 and FSH may not be similar in late peri- and postmenopausal women, they were close.
The same Any younger women into older guys 47 whitehall 47 to levels of E2 and FSH in premenopausal and early perimenopausal women. Additionally, volumes of CF were very similar between premenopausal and early perimenopausal women as well as between late Sex Pittsburgh Pennsylvania fat woman and postmenopausal women. Another limitation of the current analyses was the inability to adjust for total body fat because we did not have this measure in SWAN Heart participants.